In the country of antipodes
So it was moved that we by tradition imagine Australia the country of antipodes. It is possible not to remember, how the capital of this earth is called, it is washed by what seas oceans, but everyone since the childhood acquired that this country is located somewhere "in the bottom of" the globe. So, in relation to us Australians go head over heels. She in general is full of paradoxes, this Australia. Far and mysterious, inaccessible and unknown. In a word, terra incognita…
To begin with that Australia — the only thing in the world the state occupying the territory of the whole continent. Here its passport data: besides the Australian continent, it includes the island of Tasmania and a set of small islands. The territory — 7,7 million square kilometers, extent of the continent from the North on the South — over 3200 kilometers, from the West on the East — over 4 thousand. The population — more than 15 million people. The capital — Canberra (more than 250 thousand inhabitants).
And at personal acquaintance, I judge on myself, Australia first of all strikes measured and, if I may say so, with a good-natured tide of life. And still that here all on the contrary. When in Russia winter, in Australia summer. When you cross the road, you look at first to the right, instead of on the left.
And where still you will see a meeting of New year on a beach in bathing suits? And there is it in the same terms, as at us. Where still to move, if in the country a round season — summer? But Father Frost — a copy of ours. With that only a difference that he wanders in the dedmorozovsky fur coat barefoot on sand, from time to time having a rest in a hammock with a champagne glass. And then again «goes to the people», entertains according to functions. Can and on a water ski with a breeze to fly. And some in the red fur coats and at a beard depart on paraplanes.
Is in Australia and such New Year’s tradition which all very much love. It is called as Kissing time — «Time of kisses». Hazardously kiss all — familiar and unfamiliar that is even juicier…
Australians usually do not miss a case to remind the interlocutor that in the territory of their country 33 Great Britain can take place. If your hobby — diving, expects you the Big Barrier reef. If surfing — Gold Coast. And if attract adventures, meetings with natives, grebnisty crocodiles, the jungle and falls — head for Darwin and park of the Cockatoo…
The highest chic — to occur from convicts
But at first it is useful to thumb through history pages. The Dutch seafarers Willem Yants (1605) and Abel Tasman (1642nd) who called it New Holland were the first Europeans who have opened at the beginning of the XVII century this continent. Australia that the Southern Earth means, the continent began to be called only at the beginning of the XIX century how it in 1770 again was opened by James Cook, and late attached to an English crown.
Having entered on the Australian earth, the mentioned Yants hastened to be cleaned quickly from there and wrote down in the diary: «In this country damned by God there is nothing good». Few adventurers which there landed, brought into despondency droughty lands, «insidiousness and ferocity of natives» and the animals looking so strange, «as if God started to work on them and did not finish». Evkaliptovye the woods were lifeless, flowers had no smell, and birds did not sing. Whether it is necessary to be surprised that the first researchers called Australia the Country of nightmares and despair. Here was not neither silver, nor gold, spices. James Cook did not find even some fresh water and first decided that the continent is not suitable for life. Therefore Englishmen decided to send there, far away from the mother country, criminals-katorzhan.
Colonization of Australia also began with that that in January, 1788 to its coast there arrived the first transport of exiled from Britain. The unbearable settlement received the name Sydney. Among 700 pioneers there were 500 men and 200 women condemned for murders, robberies, smuggling, prostitution and other acts. They were followed by tens of thousands of other poor fellows which became true founders of the new country.
The law on expulsion of criminals operated till 1840, and by then many of exiled found in Australia death from back-breaking toil, clearing away thickets under farms and putting the bases of the new cities. However such fate comprehended not all. Some found freedom, managed to be learned and even to succeed. Less successful remained on position of semi-slaves in a service with voluntary immigrants who started to arrive here after the ships with convicts.
Australia — the federal state as a part of Commonwealth. According to the constitution of 1901 the Australian Union includes in the past English colonies, and nowadays states New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, Northern territory and Tasmania.
In 1931 under the Westminster statute Australia received full independence of the mother country in foreign and internal affairs. Nevertheless and today the nominal head of the country — the English queen who is represented by the governor general appointed on the recommendations of the Australian government. The supreme legislative body — the federal parliament consisting of the senate and the House of Representatives.
Hundred years ago Australians were inclined to consider themselves as the moved Englishmen. In conversations they can still call England "house". However former communications lost the value. In Australia which has been cut off from England during the Second World War, the national consciousness began to develop: the aspiration to independence got the best.
Curious phenomenon: a sign of a notable origin the family tree originating to convicts here is considered. The Melbourn genealogical society even based something like club under the name «Descendants каторжан». The number of his members reaches 2500 people. Thanks to the strict system of the account operating in England in the XVIII century to establish relationship with convicts simply. Before sending to Australia their names included in church books. Besides, on vessels lists of the passengers, ringing were carefully filled with shackles.
There is such joke, and, can, and быль. The tourist in the Australian embassy ask: «You have criminal records?» It in reply: «And what for obtaining the Australian visa the criminal record is still necessary?»
About 70 percent of Australians live nowadays in the cities with the population over hundred thousand people. Passed slightly more than 200 years, both the former exiled of the settlement of Melbourne and Sydney entered into the five of the most beautiful cities of the world.
«White acacia emigration flowers»
Overwhelming prevalence of British among other immigrants proceeded more than one and a half centuries. The situation started to change after 1945 celebrated by the largest flow of immigrants from the ruined Europe and Asia for all history of Australia. During the period between the termination of the Second World War and December, 1968 to the country there arrived 4,5 million people, from them only 41 percent fell on a share of natives from the British Isles. Other 2,7 million immigrants — are Italians, Greeks, Lebanese, Spaniards, Portuguese, Maltese, Dutches, Scandinavians, Germans, Turks, Chinese, Filipinos, Malayans, Koreans. Nowadays every fifth inhabitant of the country — the post-war immigrant.
Especially it is necessary to tell about «Russian wave», to be exact about "waves". The first was made by the Russians who running to China and Japan in days of revolution and have got over to Australia during the period between world wars. Then followed difficult on structure «second wave» — post-war. So-called "displaced persons" entered into it from Germany, Austria and Italy — the former prisoners of war, the people stolen for forced hard labor who did not wish to come back to the USSR.
Then in Australia there were also some of those who in this or that form cooperated with the occupational authorities in the territories grasped by fascists. As «the second wave» usually rank also those who in 50 — arrived the 60th years from Manchzhuriya. It is so-called «Harbin emigration» — generally descendants of workers of KVZhD living in China. Beijing did not wish to have in strategically important territory of foreigners and Russian were alarmed — felt danger of Maoist "cultural revolution".
The Harbin stream made, by different estimates, from 7 to 12 thousand people. It is considered that they most kept national traditions and make frame of a community of ethnic Russian. You for certain will find «The Russian house» in the majority of the large cities of Australia — club of a local community. On the country 32 arrivals of Russian Orthodox Church abroad are scattered, and in 1989 and the Moscow Patriarchy consecrated two new temples in Sydney and Melbourne. Among elderly people there are a lot of supporters of «United and indivisible Russia», congenial to our "Eurasians". Their views are reflected generally by the largest Russian newspaper of Australia — "Unification".
Representatives of «the third wave», as a rule — supporters of liberal and democratic values. Their communication reminds close to heart of the Russian intellectual midnight tea drinking in kitchen and Sunday departures on an open-air situated near Moscow. If to consider the former Soviet Union as our general homeland, the number of compatriots at us will essentially increase in Australia.
In disintegration of the Soviet Union here already lived 35 thousand Ukrainians making a solid community. Was Belarusians — 10 thousand less. Are strong here and the Baltic communities from which in the early nineties the most numerous was Latvian — 19 thousand people. Lithuanians 14 thousand, Estonians — 9 thousand were. Representatives of all three people are included into the Incorporated Baltic committee — the Union of the Baltic patriots of Australia. This organization shows big political activity and supports close contacts to the authorities in Riga, Vilnius and Tallinn.
Mass post-war immigration — for Australia the phenomenon unprecedented. For Australians of an English origin it became the real revolution. Natives of Lebanon, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, changed the nature of the Australian society were a special wonder. Know the three of the biggest Greek cities? The first two — Athens and Thessaloniki. And the third? Correctly, Melbourne.
The most friendly city in the world
I will provide the last information: by results of poll which has been carried out by the American magazine of travel of Conde Nast Travel, in the world Sydney is recognized as the best tourist place. On conditions of competition which is led since 1988, participants of poll estimated level of comfort and a services sector, entertainments, hospitality and uniqueness of the nature. This year on all these indicators the former unbearable settlement — Sydney, outstripped such recognized centers of gravity of tourists, as Florence, San Francisco and Bangkok was in the lead. I will especially note that the Australian megalopolis was recognized as "the most friendly city». If you did not ripen immediately to go yet to this address, I suggest to make correspondence walk.
It is best of all to fly to Sydney by plane, and from the airport it is easy to reach the city center the regular bus. It delivers travelers to Alfred Street, directly in the Sydney harbor. At the left — the well-known arch bridge, a miracle of equipment of the first half of the XX century, on the right — a huge sink of the Sydney opera. Without reaching the bridge, at the left, near a historical building of marina — an observation deck, from where it is possible to make excellent pictures of opera theater and group of the skyscrapers closely adjacent to harbor. The landscape supplements going at height 6 — the 7th floor the highway «Kakhil экспресвэй» and the railway passing under it.
The building of the Sydney opera is known around the world. Against City skyscrapers it looks a strange stone flower. Others compare it to huge sinks or the sails blown up by a wind. Analogies are justified: this peculiar structure took place on the cape running into the gulf Port Jackson. When on Sundays the sea smooth surface quickens uncountable yachts, start to understand, where the founder of the opera — the Danish architect Y.Utson scooped the imagination.
The well-known silhouette you will find almost on each card for tourists: the opera theater turned into the card not only the cities, but also all Australia. And meanwhile the project which was rising in price literally in the face of (eventually cost reached 102 million dollars), caused rough debate. The author offended by criticism and infinite amendments, even left the country before his creation later after the beginning of building rose 15 years in all beauty on the rocky cape Benelong.
It is impossible to overestimate value of this cultural center in life of Sydney. Under one roof went in opera theater on 1550 places and a concert hall on 2700. For theatrical performances «the small scene» — one more halls on 550 places is taken away. There is a room and for film viewings on 420 audience. It is possible to use and sound recording studio, library to hold exhibitions and receptions. A complex which is visited annually by about one and a half million people, art mini-salons, cafe and restaurants supplement.
But there is also a disturbing note. Recently even more often speak about the danger which has hung over the Sydney opera. The first prevention was received at the beginning of 1986 when the piece of a tile broke from a roof and ran into glass. Started to understand. And with horror established that a building on the verge of decline: the malignant tumor called by "a concrete cancer» started to corrode an architectural masterpiece from within. Remembered preventions of the sceptics arguing that coverings of concrete arches are capable to serve reliably not twenty years as suppliers promised, and at the best — it is twice less.
That were mistaken and others. But it does not change business. Million white tiles by which the roof and walls are revetted, are fragile and demand the delicate address. And they should face a constant overheat and the salted sea air.
To the first signs of trouble in the late eighties the city authorities put in the budget of 58 million dollars on the 6-year program of restoration of opera theater. Already then votes were distributed that these means for maintenance of creation of Utson in good health will not suffice. Now it became clear: it is necessary to spend for these needs annually from 8 to 10 million dollars…
But we will continue walk. Our way — on Pitt Street to a television tower which is also sight of Sydney. Also another here took place, not less interesting: at the corner of Market Street we are waited by station of the monorail road, allowing to make a ring detour of the exhibition center and a sea museum. Monorails sometimes run through buildings, hang over water or over the sidewalk. It does the road compact, taking there is not enough place in city movement. All route will occupy less than half an hour, but during this time it is possible to see a lot of things.
Having returned on Market Street, we will curtail on the main city street — George Street, having begun its survey with huge "Queen Victoria Bilding" — department store from the red stone constructed in colonial style. And if to move on the North, back to harbor, we will get to the historical area "Roks" — a place, Sydney from where began. There are a lot of private restaurants and bars, and from here it is possible to rise by the well-known Sidneysky Bridge (Harbor Bridge). By the way, sidneyets home-style call it «a hanger for clothes». If to get accustomed, the image will appear exact. Steel in the length more than one thousand meters the design was constructed in 1932, at the height of an economic crisis. From economy it painted in mouse color, noble and at the same time the least easily soiled.
Having passed or having walked on the bridge through the Sydney gulf, we will get on the picturesque coast where too there are a lot of points for shooting. Further the route will pass on the underwater tunnel laid on depth 21 meter. Then the center of night life of the city — Kings Cross-country and the Hyde park oldest in Australia. Not to overtire, we will finish excursion at a monument to James Cook. From here it is possible to make cruise on a catamaran on the gulf Port Jackson.
Sydney — the huge city: it four times more Moscow at the population only 4 million people. In the city mass of the most interesting cultural objects. To bypass everything it is obviously impossible. But if there will be time, it is necessary to glance in the National sea museum where all is brought together about the sea and water crafts — from boats of natives to battle ships and surfboards.
By the way, about features of the Sydney surfing. Here magnificent, but vigilance it is impossible to lose waves. Not only that it is necessary to watch, whether the spark fin moves to you. The Sydney spider — a version of a black spider uses even more gloomy reputation. It lives in radius of 160 kilometers round Sydney and especially often meets in a city bay, being in the habit to nest on shallows under stones and logs which are washed ashore by the sea. Poison of the mokhnonogy robber is deadly to people and is almost harmless to mice and insects. Fortunately, still in the early eighties many Australian newspapers reported that the Melbourn immunologist S. Sareland and his colleagues received and successfully tested on monkeys a vaccine against the terrible murderer.
Why Australia did not become the second America
For years of rather short history Australia so changed that today it is difficult to make accurate definition of the concept "Australian". It is possible to judge depth of these changes at least because in the telephone directory of Sydney the Vietnamese surname Nguyen meets more often than Johnson.
Earlier business was more simply. The word "Australian" generally was a synonym of all Anglo-Celtic. Almost all citizens had white skin color and similar tastes. Typical Australians called Donald Bredman or Frank Sedzhmen. All of them ate meat with vegetables and played cricket or tennis. It was society about which now many respond as about boring, torn off from other world, deprived of dynamism in addition also the racist.
However at the average population density equal to about one people per square kilometer, it was impossible to dare to block to foreigners access to the country. From those who here came, first it was required, that they were white and it is good — British. However everything changed in 1970 when to the power the Labour party came, decided to finish policy of «white Australia» and to replace it with the concept called "multiculture". The Australian multiculture liquidated discrimination and opened the continent for immigrants of all skin colors and races.
Since 1975 in Sydney «ethnic radio» on which programs in more than 50 languages are transferred works so-called. And in the eighties became operational and «ethnic TV channel». In the country there are over 2300 national clubs and societies, hundreds schools for children of immigrants. Councils of ethnic societies and the commission on ethnic questions which watch participation of ethnic minorities equal in rights in social and political life are created. Intentions good, but with practical implementation of the concept of not all it is safe. Immigrants make 60 percent of factory workers while the most profitable positions, for example in public service, for 80 percent are occupied by Australians of an English origin.
Now in Australia almost all nationalities of our planet are presented. However, the population still for 95 percent consists from white, but the share of natives of Great Britain was reduced to 75 percent. The remained quarter of the population represents a motley ethnic mix. Natives of Asia still in minority, but they brought especially appreciable changes in shape of the country.
One journalist from the Parisian newspaper "Mond", having arrived after a long break to Sydney, was surprised: «Really the city became Asian?» Faces of people which you meet on streets, restaurants, foreign signs — all this really makes similar impression. Earlier when immigrants came generally from Europe, here, except English, in a course were first of all Italian and Greek. And now the second language became Chinese with all its dialects.
Kitaizatsiya of the Fifth continent goes fast rates. In anniversary 1988 for Australia in the Beijing magazine "China" there was a curious note: «In February, 1988 in the Australian city of Sydney on the area of 10 thousand square meters the Chinese park "Iyuan" ("Friendship") which became the park largest abroad in the Chinese style was put. Park constructions occupied 1500 square meters of the area, other part of park — is hills, the lakes, the planted trees and shrubs sites — only 40 picturesque corners. Here it is possible to see colourful arbors inherent in the Chinese parks, pavilions, terraces, graceful bridges and freakish stones… Iyuan park — a fruit of joint work of builders of China and Australia, a friendship symbol between the people of both countries. Opened by 200-year anniversary of formation of Australia, the park brought to the Australian people pleasure and brought in a fine palette of the city new paints».
Paints paints, but the pleasure is not too indisputable. In 1995 every 12th inhabitant of Sydney was born in Asia, and in 2020 as demographer Charlz Prays considers, Asian blood will be in veins of every sixth sidneyets. In 1995 Henry Chang, the deputy mayor of Sydney, began fight for a post of the mayor on elections in city meeting. As it was noted in the press, «if he eventually wins them, in the mayor for the first time there will be an Australian of the Chinese origin». By the way, the present mayor of Seattle (USA) — the American Chinese.
The history sometimes puts curious experiments. Let’s compare, for an example, Australia and the United States. In emergence of these countries much in common. Both were colonized, and they are white immigrants from Europe. In both cases it there were the outcasts who torn away or have torn with European civilization of that time. In both cases of a colony were a part of the British Empire. The climate of both territories is comparable, initial resources too. The indigenous people, natives, both there and here did not render special resistance. The historical typology almost completely coincides.
And for the rest the USA and Australia — the countries very different. Not in small degree this results from the fact that "outcasts" (the term not quite correct, but we we will use it conditionally) in them were different. Religious dissidents went to America generally. They not simply snatched away its lands, minerals, furs, gold and other riches. But first of all carried out a certain spiritual mission. Believed that follow high mission: create on the new earth the new world based on truly Christian principles. Something turned out, something is not present. But America as a civilization with a messianic bias undoubtedly took place.
And to Australia as we remember, the people who were not on friendly terms with the law first went. The second stream the people with an adventurous vein, adventurers rushed. The third — the people running from revolutions and wars. Here also it turned out as a result of such intricate hybrid. As sociological polls, quite friendly testify.
Generally it is probably good that Australians are not similar to Americans. To everyone — the.
Archimandrite Avgustin (Nikitin)